Acid-Base Balance Tutorial

by "Grog" (Alan W. Grogono), Professor Emeritus, Tulane University Department of Anesthesiology

Acid-Base Balance Tutorial Home Page

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This tutorial was completely rewritten in March 2018 with new text, diagrams, fonts, and colors. It explains clinical acid-base balance and introduces an interactive acid-base diagram which displays typical clinical disturbances. Click on the small icons and diagrams throughout the website to get additional information – sometimes serious, sometimes light-hearted!

Several Unfortunate Historical Decisions complicate this subject and this website explains this history.

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The Bird's Eye-View, Two Components:

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Why do we care?

Heart Variations in pH or PCO2 used to be thought of as pathological entities. Experiments by Xu et al have shown, however, that very low pH and very high PCO2 may both be well tolerated when circulation and oxygenation are maintained. The implication is that abnormal levels of PCO2 or pH are best regarded as indicators of serious trouble, but not as pathology in themselves.

Getting Started

History History, Physiology, and the Interactive Diagram are all good places to start.
Alternatively, use the Index to select the topic that interests you most.

Interactive Acid-Base Diagram

Diagram The interactive acid-base diagram is a major feature of this website. It shows characteristic zones on an interactive diagram and simultaneously provides continuous text interpretation. In addition to showing the Classical Zones, it also allows Self Testing.

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Computing Techniques

Computer The mathematics and programming underlying the interactive diagrams and equations are described on separate pages. This site employs Javascript, and Pop-Ups. To get the best out of this website, these must be active.


Mail Contact me if you wish. I appreciate receiving your feedback, especially if you have ideas comments or suggestions, or if you find errors or spelling mistakes. Thank you.

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Peer Reviewed by AAMC MedEdPORTAL

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It is My Pleasure to Acknowledge and Thank:

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Same Author:

Animated Knots by Grog
Animated Napkins by Grog
Stereo Art
Magic Squares

About the Author:

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Acid-Base Tutorial
Alan W. Grogono
Small Logo Copyright Mar 2018.
All Rights Reserved
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